Problems and Countermeasures of import and export

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Problems and Countermeasures Faced by the import and export of machinery industry in 2011

I. The import and export of machinery industry reached a record high in 2010

according to customs statistics, the total import and export volume of machinery industry in 2010 was 513.83 billion US dollars, an increase of 36.39%. Among them, imports amounted to US $255.347 billion, an increase of 41.14% year-on-year; Exports reached US $258.483 billion, a year-on-year increase of 32%. The import and export trade surplus is US $3.136 billion (according to the statistical scope of China Machinery Industry Federation, the same below)

1. Exports grew rapidly, hitting a record high

in 2010, the export volume of the machinery industry has exceeded the highest level in 2008 (the export was US $242.498 billion in the process of coordinated development between enterprises and local governments). Compared with the same period of last year, in all industries in the machinery industry, except for the decline in the export of heavy mining machinery, other industries increased by more than 20% year-on-year, of which the mechanical basic parts and automobile industries grew the fastest, increasing by 43.73% and 40.3% respectively

products with a year-on-year increase in exports of more than 50% are mainly tractors, diesel engines, loaders, forklifts, electronic measuring instruments, automotive instruments, plastic machinery, CNC machine tools, gas turbines, low-voltage switchgear cabinets, molds, pneumatic components, bearings, cars, off-road vehicles, passenger cars, buses, etc. The export momentum of these products is very good

in 2010, the export of state-owned enterprises was US $43.313 billion, accounting for 16.76% of the total export; Foreign funded enterprises amounted to US $141.926 billion, accounting for 54.91%; Private enterprises amounted to US $73.243 billion, accounting for 28.33%

the distribution of export regions began to change, the proportion of exports to developed economies began to decline, and the proportion of emerging economies and developing countries with simple installation increased. In total exports, the proportion of developed economies in the European Union, the United States and Japan fell from 43.53% in 2008 to 41.55% in 2010. It shows that due to the great impact of the financial crisis on developed economies, the demand is relatively reduced

2. Imports increased at a high speed, and the import volume greatly exceeded the highest level in the past years

in 2010, the import volume of the machinery industry exceeded the highest level in 2008 (import US $19.83 billion). Compared with the previous year, the net increase in imports reached US $74.43 billion, also the highest level in history, with a strong momentum

compared with the same period of last year, the import of all industries in the machinery industry increased in an all-round way, among which the automobile industry increased the most, reaching 74.95%; Followed by the machine tool industry, 66.73%; The construction machinery industry accounted for 65.93%

compared with the same period of last year, the products whose import volume has more than doubled are mainly tractors, excavators, pavers, automotive instruments, processing centers, cars, passenger cars, buses, etc. The reason for the rapid growth is mainly due to the strong pull of fixed asset investment, except for the strong consumer demand for cars, passenger cars, SUVs, motorcycles, cameras, etc

according to the analysis, of the annual net increase of 74.43 billion US dollars, the automobile industry has a net increase of 20.92 billion US dollars; Followed by the electrical and electrical industry, with a net increase of $10.26 billion; Again, instrument 3 Casting quality instrument industry, with a net increase of $8.73 billion; The fourth place was the machine tool industry, with a net increase of $6.37 billion. Among them, the import growth momentum of automobiles, machine tools, excavators, power electronic components, automatic adjustment and control instruments is very strong

II. New situations and problems faced by the import and export of machinery industry in 2011

1. Export

in 2011, the world economy was in the recovery stage after the financial crisis, and the economic growth rate will gradually recover. According to the prediction of the International Monetary Fund, the GDP of developed economies will increase by about 2.4% in 2011, and that of developing countries will increase by about 6.6%. It is expected that the demand of the international market will increase, especially the continuous expansion of economic and technological cooperation between China and emerging economies and developing countries, coupled with the establishment of a free trade zone with ASEAN and the signing of free trade area agreements with Chile, Peru, Singapore and other countries, the international economic environment in 2011 is conducive to the steady and rapid development of foreign trade in China's machinery industry

new situations and problems:

first, there is great pressure on the appreciation of the RMB. On June 19, 2010, the people's Bank of China announced that it would continue to carry out exchange rate reform to make the exchange rate more flexible. Appreciation of 3.2% within half a year. This will greatly increase the export cost

secondly, the prices of some raw materials such as steel, copper, aluminum and other non-ferrous metals may rise; Rising labor costs; The increase of bank loan interest rate will increase export costs, reduce export competitiveness, and make export enterprises face difficulties

these "three self-confidence" need our support for the identification of core values

again, trade protectionism in various countries is on the rise, and trade frictions are increasing. Some developed countries led by the United States have implemented trade investigations and trade sanctions against China in many fields. For example, the United States recently conducted a trade survey on the wind power generation equipment exported to China; On February 7, 2011, the United States decided to impose high anti-dumping duties and countervailing duties on some petroleum drill pipes exported from China to prevent the export of Chinese products to the United States

according to the above analysis, in 2011, although there were a number of adverse factors and difficulties, there were also many favorable factors. The world economy was recovering, China's export product structure was constantly optimizing, enterprises made some achievements in exploring potential markets, and took a solid step in carrying out international operations. Therefore, the export of machinery industry will continue to grow steadily and rapidly in 2011, and the proportion of exports to emerging economies and developing countries will continue to increase

2. Import

first, the central economic work conference held at the end of 2010 pointed out that we should optimize the import structure, expand the import scale, and give play to the important role of import in macroeconomic balance and economic structure adjustment. At the national business work conference held in early 2011, the Ministry of Commerce proposed to expand imports, strive to achieve a basic balance of trade, revise and expand the catalogue of products encouraged to import, and implement preferential import policies. The Ministry of Commerce will hold a National Import Conference in the first half of 2011 to introduce policies to optimize the environment and promote the development of China's import trade

secondly, the cross strait economic cooperation framework agreement stipulates that from January 1, 2011, the mainland will reduce tariffs on 176 kinds of machinery products imported from Taiwan. The import tariff of most products (such as CNC horizontal lathes, etc.) was reduced from 8% to 15% in 2011 to 5%, and the import tariff was reduced to zero in 2012. The main products with large tax reduction scope include machine tools, plastic machinery, small power motors, molds, hydraulic parts, etc

thirdly, the appreciation of RMB will reduce import costs and be beneficial to imports

III. some countermeasures and suggestions

1. Adapt to the changes in international market demand, adjust and optimize the structure of export products

after the international financial crisis, countries have taken a series of corresponding measures, and the international market demand has changed. Relevant export enterprises should adapt to this change, adjust the product structure in time and provide good services according to the needs of users. At the same time, as domestic enterprises adjust the product structure and change the development mode, they should optimize the export product structure in time and gradually reduce the export of two high-tech and one capital products

2. Explore potential markets and pay attention to the impact of the European sovereign debt crisis

actively explore markets in the Middle East, Central Asia, Latin America, Africa, Eastern Europe, India, Brazil, Russia and other markets, promote the diversification of export markets, and strive to make up for the lost market share in the European Union, the United States and other markets

the debt crisis started by Greece has extended to Ireland, Spain and other countries, resulting in the continued spread of the impact of the European sovereign debt crisis, prompting the sharp depreciation of the euro and the appreciation of the RMB relative to the euro, which has a great impact on China's exports. Relevant enterprises need to pay close attention to the fluctuation of the euro exchange rate and market changes, and actively take corresponding measures to adjust their export strategies in a timely manner. 3. Continue to go global and strengthen international operation

in recent years, some powerful enterprises in China have achieved practical results in carrying out international operation, and some are gradually establishing global sales service points, creating good conditions for further expanding exports. It is necessary to encourage more qualified enterprises to go out and invest in factories, cooperate with local enterprises, or selectively merge and acquire foreign enterprises with advanced manufacturing technology, and create conditions to gradually transplant advanced technology into the products produced by domestic enterprises, so as to promote the adjustment and upgrading of enterprise product structure

4. we should seize the opportunity to expand imports and improve the ability of independent innovation

on the one hand, relevant enterprises should make full use of the national policies to encourage imports and introduce the required advanced technology and equipment as well as the key parts and components for supporting products. In the process of expanding imports, we should use imported equipment as chips and bring in technology at the same time through negotiation and bidding with foreign investors; Or we can use imported equipment to attract foreign investors to cooperate with us, and our enterprise will manufacture some parts and transfer some technology. With the increase of the number of imported similar equipment, we will gradually expand the scope of our enterprise's manufacturing until we master all the technology

on the other hand, we should strive to improve the ability of independent innovation. Independent innovation does not mean that everything should be developed from scratch. Today, with economic globalization and the rapid development of science and technology, it is impossible for any country to develop technology independently in all fields and engage in independent innovation behind closed doors. In this sense, it is very important to attach importance to the digestion, absorption and re innovation of imported technology. Therefore, while expanding imports, we should work hard on digestion, absorption and re innovation, constantly develop new products with independent intellectual property rights, and strive to improve competitiveness

5. Actively create conditions and strive to promote RMB settlement of cross-border trade

in June 2010, the people's Bank of China and other departments issued the notice on issues related to the expansion of RMB settlement pilot of cross-border trade, and decided to expand the geographical scope and business scope of RMB settlement pilot of cross-border trade

this measure is an important choice to avoid exchange rate risks, which can reduce the dependence on the US dollar and reduce the losses to export enterprises caused by the appreciation of the RMB. According to recent information from various parties, many foreign businessmen are also willing to choose RMB for settlement, and have achieved practical results. According to statistics, in the first 10 months of 2010, China's import and export settlement in RMB with more than 70 countries and regions exceeded 250billion yuan, and great progress has been made. Export enterprises should work closely with customers, choose powerful banks, and actively promote RMB settlement of cross-border trade

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