The hottest machine replacement engineer becomes a

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"Machine replacement" engineers become a hot position in Intelligent Manufacturing in the future

machine replacement promotes structural changes in employment, and the shortage of talents in digital, intelligent and automation technology will intensify

machine replacement is inseparable from people

According to expert analysis, engineers with application equipment technologies such as programming, installation, operation and maintenance are hot jobs in the future intelligent manufacturing industry.

in such a large workshop, there are no workers standing side by side in the long and narrow production line. Instead, they are tall manipulator arms. They are neat, operate at high speed, and are busy on the assembly line without making any mistakes. Such a scene has become a reality in many factories

at the end of 2012, robots quietly replaced workers in Zhejiang, Jiangsu and other provinces. After that, with the introduction of supportive policies in various regions, a large number of manufacturing enterprises began to upgrade the equipment intelligently and automatically, and the wave of machine replacement began gradually. This trend also raises concerns among employment groups: will the era of machine replacement cause an employment crisis

on January 19, the China Institute of labor relations released the Research Report on the situation of Chinese workers (2018) (hereinafter referred to as the "Research Report") to conduct in-depth research on manufacturing enterprises in Beijing. The survey found that the further promotion of artificial intelligence technology will increase the negative impact of machine replacement on employment, especially white-collar workers with certain professional skills. But at the same time, machine replacement is promoting structural changes in employment, and the shortage of talents in digital, intelligent and automation technology will further intensify

why do enterprises favor robots

what impact does machine replacement have on labor and employment? Which positions are vulnerable to the impact of machine replacement? Does machine replacement help improve the quality of employment? With these questions in mind, the research team of the Research Report conducted a typical survey on six enterprises in Beijing

the research group chooses 3 The enterprises that open computers and printers include six types of manufacturing enterprises, including printing, medical devices, automobiles, beer, furniture, petrochemical products, etc; The nature of enterprises includes state-owned, private, joint venture and foreign-funded enterprises, including both the world's top 500 enterprises, as well as domestic industry-leading enterprises or rapidly developing industry rookies

the survey found that most enterprises were replaced by 100 to 200 employees in the process of intelligent transformation and automatic upgrading. Among them, state-owned enterprises, considering social factors, mostly adopt natural attrition, early retirement, job transfer, job waiting and other ways to solve the employment problem of replaced employees, while private, joint venture and foreign-funded enterprises choose to terminate labor contracts through negotiation

the research report shows that there are three reasons why enterprises choose machine replacement: early entry into the market and leading technology: difficult recruitment; Reduce labor intensity and improve working conditions; Reduce costs, improve efficiency and enhance market competitiveness

take printing enterprises as an example, they are labor-intensive, labor-intensive and long working hours. Many employees work more than 10 hours a day, and their wages belong to the daily settlement system. Therefore, post-90s young people are rarely willing to enter this industry, and enterprises have been facing the pressure of recruitment difficulties and rising recruitment costs for a long time. Therefore, the enterprise finally chooses to purchase digital and automatic equipment to replace labor

now the working conditions in the factory have been greatly improved, and there is almost no heavy physical work. For enterprises engaged in beer production and petrochemical products manufacturing, the main reason for machine replacement is to reduce the labor intensity and occupational injury of employees. For example, beer manufacturing enterprises adopt highly automated equipment, which reduces the labor intensity of bottle washing, filling, coding and other work, and reduces the risk of eye disease of wine inspectors through wine inspection machines

machine replacement intensifies employment polarization

machine replacement is not simply replacing people, but replacing them with employees with higher technical levels. The research group believes that

zhangyanhua, a member of the research group and an associate professor of the Department of labor relations at the China Institute of labor relations, noted that the main impact of machine replacement is procedural work, and the replacement of intermediate skilled personnel is the most serious, while the demand for high-tech highly skilled personnel and non procedural low skilled personnel has increased. In fact, this employment polarization phenomenon has appeared in the labor market of many countries

posts that are easily replaced by technological progress have two characteristics: first, low knowledge and low skill requirements; Second, it is highly procedural, highly repetitive and highly standardized. According to the research report, the main posts where intelligent, automated and digital technologies have an impact on labor employment include front-line operators and professional and technical posts

6 surveyed enterprises, although engaged in different industries, almost all expressed the same strong desire: high skilled talents are in great demand, but they cannot recruit people

relevant reports also show that many automation manufacturing enterprises have introduced industrial robot equipment, but because they cannot recruit industrial robot engineers to operate, program, maintain and repair, they have to leave the robots empty in the plant. According to expert analysis, application engineers with a series of application equipment technologies such as programming, installation, operation and maintenance will be popular positions in the future intelligent manufacturing industry

this trend was confirmed in the report "2018 future employment" released by the summer Davos Forum in 2018. The report shows that the development of automation technology and intelligent technology will replace 75million jobs. But as the Company re plans the division of labor between machines and humans, another 133million new jobs will emerge

from the perspective of micro research, at present, machine replacement has not caused large-scale employee unemployment, but technical unemployment, and the mismatch between employee quality and job demand will become increasingly prominent. Zhang Yanhua said that the new round of technological innovation has had a significant structural impact on the labor market. On the one hand, the ordinary labor force in enterprises is constantly replaced by intelligent, digital and automated equipment and robots, on the other hand, there is a shortage of high-level innovative skilled talents

how to eliminate the panic of machine substitution

the scarcity of highly skilled workers has become one of the biggest problems in the transformation and upgrading of China's manufacturing industry. The research group believes that the scale of machine replacement will increase rapidly in the future, but there is a certain lag in the creation of new departments, new industries and new occupations with intelligent technology, and it will take a long time to cultivate high-quality workers who adapt to new technology

the impact of machine replacement on employees' employment requires government departments and education and training departments to take countermeasures as soon as possible. In this regard, the research report puts forward four suggestions: improve the public employment service system and promote labor employment; Attract private enterprises to enter the vocational and technical training market and improve the effect of vocational skills training; Improve the social security system, strengthen the responsibility of unemployment insurance, and reduce the impact of technical unemployment on workers; Establish and improve the school enterprise integration mechanism and improve the quality of labor force

the research group believes that human resources and social security departments can improve their service functions from three aspects. Including improving the release of market supply and demand information for technology related jobs such as artificial intelligence, digitization and robotics; Improve career guidance and consulting services, help the workers replaced by machines to smoothly realize reemployment, and carry out career development planning for workers with high intelligent technology; Through the research on the post technology needs in the field of artificial intelligence in the manufacturing industry, we can train the skills in urgent need

to cope with the impact of technological upgrading on employment, improving the quality of labor force is the fundamental policy. The research report points out that improving the quality of the labor force requires the effective combination of work ideas and work priorities of enterprises and vocational colleges and institutions in 2018. It is suggested to attract private enterprises to enter the vocational and technical training market, establish a communication and cooperation mechanism between enterprises and vocational colleges, and expand the cooperation space in the aspects of specialty and curriculum setting, teacher exchange learning and training, vocational college students' internship and training in enterprises, etc. Strengthen the sense of existence of enterprises in the training of highly skilled talents

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