Analysis on the problems and causes of China's mac

  • Detail

Analysis on the problems and causes of China's machinery basic parts industry

due to China's late understanding of the important position of machinery basic parts in the machinery industry and the long-term lack of investment, the whole industry has a poor foundation, weak foundation and weak strength. Especially with the improvement of the level of the main engine in our country after each experiment, the bottleneck phenomenon that the basic mechanical parts lag behind the main engine is becoming increasingly apparent. In recent years, although the state has given some support in technology introduction, technological transformation, scientific research and development, there is still a big gap compared with the current market demand and foreign level, which is reflected in the following aspects: less product varieties, low level, unstable quality, high early failure rate and poor reliability

there are few varieties and specifications of mechanical basic parts in China, especially the gap between high-end products is large, which can not meet the growing needs of host machines. At present, the performance indicators of various host basic components are roughly equivalent to the level of foreign countries in the 1980s. Unstable quality, high early failure rate and poor reliability are the fatal weaknesses of basic components. Therefore, in order to improve the market competitiveness of their main engines, many main engine manufacturers often choose imported basic parts, resulting in a decline in the domestic market share of domestic basic parts, especially products with low technical content. Although there are obvious advantages in the export of China's basic components, it is mainly the potential utilization prospect. 10 points are attractive labor-intensive products, which are large in quantity, low in value, and low in technical added value

at present, there are the following main problems in China's mechanical basic parts industry:

first, the repeated construction is serious, the degree of specialization is low, the form is not large-scale, and the economic benefit is poor

compared with the host machine, the initial capital and technology investment required for the establishment of the enterprise are relatively small. Therefore, in the spring testing machine, first of all, confirm the maximum force value that needs to be tested, and the maximum force value is below 2Kn. Generally, select the single column spring fatigue testing machine Generally, double column spring fatigue testing machine is used when it is larger than 2Kn to 50kn1, and floor type spring fatigue testing machine is used when it is above 50kN The design of the rack should be combined with ergonomics to ensure safety, reduce the fatigue of operators and provide the highest level of flexibility. During several periods of great economic development in the country, a number of basic parts production enterprises have been added, followed by a large number of low-level repeated construction, many points and small batches, which cannot form an economic scale. Although the basic component enterprises are gradually independent of the main engine factory, most of them are large and complete, small and complete, with low degree of specialization, low level of equipment, unstable quality and low economic benefits. For example, the total annual bearing output of the three large backbone enterprises in China's bearing industry is less than 50% of that of a famous company abroad, which cannot optimize the allocation of resources. In the past two years, China has built nearly 100 hydraulic parts factories, but only a few have an annual output of more than 300000 pieces, and the main products are supporting agricultural machinery. The annual output of Rexroth in Germany is 1.3 million hydraulic parts, and that of Yuyan (Zhuzhou) in Japan is more than 600000. The per capita output value of mold enterprises in industrialized countries is about 150000 ~ 200000 US dollars, while in China, it is only 40000 ~ 50000 yuan. In recent years, with the implementation of the common development policy of multiple ownership, the basic parts industry is undergoing an intensive development process from decentralization to gradual concentration

second, the strength of scientific research and development is weak, the capital investment is insufficient, and the technological progress is slow.

various industries of basic components introduced a number of foreign advanced technologies early in the late 1970s and early 1980s, but they lack sufficient software and hardware investment for digestion and absorption. According to foreign experience, the ratio between the introduction of technology and the capital required for digestion and absorption is about 1:7, while China has a late understanding of this, and the pace of digestion and absorption is slow. Market competition is actually a contest of technical strength. Foreign countries attach great importance to this and have increased investment to occupy the technological commanding heights. The funds used by major famous companies for scientific research and development account for 4% - 5% of their sales, and 10% in key areas. At present, although many colleges and universities in China are engaged in scientific research, and many theoretical research, scientific research achievements and patent papers are at a high level, they are not closely combined with production practice, especially the speed of converting into commodities is slow

third, raw materials and related technologies are backward, and the level of technology and process equipment is low, which restricts the development of basic parts

the poor quality and few varieties and specifications of steel used in fasteners, chains, springs, bearings, molds and other products have a direct impact on the quality of basic parts products, while the backward electrical control technology related to the quality of hydraulic parts castings and hydraulic parts also directly affects the quality and reliability of hydraulic parts. Mechanical basic parts are generally produced in batches and in large quantities, and there are also products with multiple varieties and high processing accuracy requirements. Therefore, the production process and equipment are highly required and the investment is large. Foreign countries often use efficient and high-precision special machines, production lines or flexible lines to achieve efficient automatic production. However, some basic component enterprises in China are restricted by funds, with little investment, poor self-improvement ability, and few and mismatched advanced equipment, which affect the quality and grade of products

through comprehensive analysis, the main reasons for the above problems are:

1 Weak enterprise foundation

due to the poor foundation, weak foundation, less scientific and technological investment and weak development force of China's machinery basic parts industry, it can not meet the needs of the introduction, joint venture, cooperation and rapid development of the host industry, resulting in a decline in the domestic market share of machinery basic parts

2. The state lacks strong policy support for the mechanical basic parts industry

although the state has clearly defined the key support for important mechanical basic parts (molds, bearings, hydraulic, pneumatic, seals, etc.) in terms of industrial policy, it lacks the support of corresponding supporting policies, such as the heavy tax burden in the mold industry, and there are less than 100 enterprises enjoying the partial return of value-added tax in the country, which is too narrow and has limited effect, Policy support is also needed

therefore, in order to improve the market competitiveness of China's machinery basic parts products and better meet the demand of China's machinery industry for domestic basic parts, it is expected that China's basic parts industry will face further adjustment to integrate advantageous resources and eliminate backward enterprises. In the next five to ten years, the industry will strive for greater progress and breakthroughs in developing brand products and famous brand enterprises, carrying out technological innovation, improving the competitiveness of domestic and foreign markets, and strengthening intensive management

Copyright © 2011 JIN SHI